National and historical symbols of Hungary

In this section you can find the crests of almost 2400 settlements of Hungary with notes. Find the starting letter of the settlement in the list and click if you want to see it.

The Coat-of-Arms of the Town of Polgár [¤]
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Polgár

(County Hajdú-Bihar)

Polgár's coat-of-arms bears: argent, on a ground vert in the base a church as described below on the dexter and an eagle rising displayed, wings inverted on the sinister, all tinctured brown. In chief the badge of the Virgin azure.

The settlement's first written mention, in the Váradi Regesztrum (Register of Várad), goes back to 1229. Originally it might have been a castle possession. According to the most probable version of the several interpretations of the village's name, its original meaning may be "the village of those who owe service to the castle". In the Middle Ages Polgár and the one-time villages that used to be found on its extensive fields had had various landowners before, in 1501, Polgár and Szentmargita finally got into the possession of the Chapter of Eger.

Owing to the versatile political situation and the lack of legal security which followed the 15-year-war, István Bocskai's war of independence and the second uprising of the Haiduk (originally herdsmen and farmers who served in Bocskai's army and fought the Turks), Captain-General Bálint Homonnai Dingeth, the Hapsburg emperor's commissioner, in a document dated April 1608 at Szikszó bestowed Polgár and Szentmargita on the Haiduk in order to satisfy their demands. This illegitimate situation was possible to be maintained as long as the Haiduk represented an effective military power.

After the expulsion of the Turks, however, the original landowner, the Chapter of Eger, took legal action in order to regain its one-time possession. The Chapter won the case and, after long procrastination, the Haiduk abandoned Polgár in 1717. The Chapter resettled the market town in 1727 with Catholic serfs from Upper Hungary.

This diversity in the settlement's history is reflected in a variety of armorial bearings. The earliest known seal print charged with arms appears on a document dated 1666, when Polgár was a Haiduk town. The seal bears a dexter hand reversed holding a scimitar( by the point a moon decrescent on the sinister and a six-pointed star on the dexter are borne. The legend reads POLGAR VARVSA PETSET. However, this seal bears no date.

The town's next seal, still from the Haiduk period, has survived in its original form. It was made in 1697, and the legend reads POLGAR VARASA PECSETI. The charge is the full figure of a Haiduk warrior affronty with the sinister arm akimbo, holding a scimitar in the dexter hand and wearing a characteristic Haiduk high cap. The charge is flanked by the date 1697 divided evenly. Since the Haiduk town of Polgár had already had an armed seal earlier (as described above), the reason for the new one to be made may have been the legal action, the proceedings of which started around that time. By emphasising military valour and the virtues of the Haiduk warriors, these armorial bearings fit in well with the line of the coats-of-arms of Haiduk towns.

The serf community, which was settled at Polgár by the Chapter of Eger, used a completely different seal and coat-of-arms. Directly after the resettlement had taken place, in 1729 the serf community had a seal made with the legend SIGILLUM CAPITULI AGRIENSIS OPIDI POLGAR 1729 (i.e. 'seal of the market town Polgár of the Chapter of Eger'). Quite understandably, albeit rather unusually, the legend lays special emphasis on the proprietary rights of the Chapter. The charge enfiled by the legend bears the following: on the dexter a Roman Catholic church showing the features of rural architecture; in the tower a door below and two windows above, beneath the spire a balcony for the watchmen. Close to the sinister side of the spire the badge of the Virgin is borne. On the sinister an eagle rising borne erect on the ground. This motif is an unambiguous reference to the Bishopric and Chapter of Eger, the patron saint of which is St John the Evangelist, represented by the eagle in ecclesiastical iconography. Thus do the symbols of the charge accentuate the statement of the legend.

In 1750 the market town had a new armed seal made with the legend SIGILLUM CAP: AG OPIDI POLGAR 1750. The abbreviations having been decoded, it reads 'seal of the market town Polgár of the Chapter of Eger'. As can be seen, the text is unchanged; however, owing to the abbreviations, the proprietary rights of the Chapter are perhaps less emphatically accentuated. The seal charge is also practically unchanged; the only difference is that the image of the church is drawn more elaborately, and the tower is topped by a Baroque onion dome. This may be the reflection of the fact that the first church, erected in a rough-and-ready way directly after the resettlement, had by now been replaced by a new one built in Baroque style.

The reason for the 18th-century seal charge to have been chosen as the charge of the present-day coat-of-arms is that at the beginning of the 18th century Polgár ceased to be a Haiduk town, and did not belong to the Haiduk district any longer. Moreover, in 1717 it was abandoned by the Haiduk dwellers, and the recent population came into being as a result of the resettling administered by the Chapter of Eger.

Pictures:

1. Fehér Holló (White Raven) restaurant is one of the best in town

2. The lido area also includes a boating lake of several hectares

3. The town lido: the children's pool with the indoor swimming pool in the background

4. Polgár's Penny Market superstore

5. Town lido entrance

6. A bird's eye view of the market square surrounded by rows of boutiques

7. The Roman Catholic church

8. The stations on Calvary Hill, each erected from the donation of a different family

9. The building of the municipal pharmacy

10. The local authority's town management office

11. The local branch of Polgár és Vidéke Takarékszövetkezet (co-operative savings bank)

12. The main entrance to the mayor's office

13. A detached house built for several generations in Báthory utca (street)

14. The Zólyom út (street) unit of Pál Vásárhelyi Primary, Secondary and Vocational School

15. World War I Memorial erected in the Roman Catholic church garden

16. The residence of the Roman Catholic parish priest

17. The Ernő Kiss út (street) unit of Pál Vásárhelyi Primary, Secondary and Vocational School

18. The three crosses on Calvary Hill, with an open-air pulpit in the front