National and historical symbols of Hungary

In this section you can find the crests of almost 2400 settlements of Hungary with notes. Find the starting letter of the settlement in the list and click if you want to see it.

The Coat-of-Arms of the Town of Nyíregyháza [¤]
Click to zoom

Nyíregyháza

(County Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg)

The coat-of-arms is a shield erect party per fess azure and gules, couped at point, pierced flanche-wise, the base fish-tailed. The upper field bears: azure, a church argent roofed gules, the spire topped by a star argent, flanked on both sides by tall birch trees proper. This charge is the symbolic representation of the town's name, since nyír means birch, and egyház means church. The lower field bears: gules, an arm habited azure holding four ears of wheat or, representing the main branch of agriculture. Across the top a five-pointed coronet verdured or adorned with pearls and gems (headband azure and gules counterchanged in the leaves). The shield is encircled with a cartouche framed and ornamented with lines or. Supporters: dexter and sinister a stylised griffin respectively, addorsed, langued gules, reaching to the headband of the coronet. Around the base an ornamental foliage is borne.

Nyíregyháza has been inhabited since times immemorial, and has also been an integral part of Hungarian history since the Magyar conquest of the country, as referred to by archeological finds and written evidence alike. From the documents the name of the settlement can be derived as follows: the word nyír might have meant the swampy and marshy area as well as the birch tree itself, very common in the region. The posterior constituent -egyháza refers to the fact that the settlement had a church of its own as early as the 12th and 13th centuries. However, in the centuries that followed it was not a populous place. Later Gábor Báthory, Prince of Transylvania, granted privileges to the Haiduk (originally herdsmen and farmers who served in the insurgent armies of Transylvanian princes), in order that they would settle down here.

The privileges were then withdrawn and, as a result, within a century the settlement of extensive fields shrank to the size of a small village. It was around this time that Nyíregyháza was obtained by the Károlyi family. It was in 1753 that one of them, Ferenc Károlyi, settled here those Slovaks from Upper Hungary who had previously moved to the county Békés. This resulted in a rapid development.

In 1786 Emperor Joseph II granted the citizens of Nyíregyháza the right of holding fairs, and the Lutherans were allowed to build their own church. Half a century after the Slovaks had settled, the locals made an announcement to their landlords that they would redeem the rights which were to promote bourgeois development. Redemption from under the bonds of socage actually took place in 1803 and 1824.

The ambitions of the town with a freed economy were further enhanced by its achievements, and Nyíregyháza applied for the privilege of royal borough, a rank that the town was given in 1837. In the charter the king regulated the authority of the town council, granted a coat-of-arms and called upon the citizens to promote crafts and industrial development. The town of 17,000 took the royal recommendations seriously. In 1858 the first train arrived at the station. The railway played an important role in the town's becoming seat of the county in 1876.

In our days Nyíregyháza, a town of 120,000 inhabitants located in Northeast Hungary, is one of the most dynamically developing settlements of the region, as well as its economic, commercial, educational and cultural centre. The town's international importance is increased by the fact that it is the seat of the county Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, which borders on the Ukraine, Romania and Slovakia. Thus Nyíregyháza can now be looked upon as a springboard toward the markets of the East. Its significance is further enhanced by the fact that the roads and railways coming from Southern and Western Europe run through it before reaching the borderline crossing points. Nyíregyháza, the gateway between the West and the East, is an open town where guests are always welcome.

E-mail: polghiv@szabinet.hu

Homepage: www.szabinet.hu

Pictures:

1. Sóstó (Salt Lake, aerial view)

2. András Jósa Museum

3. The former Villa Bencs, now House of Europe

4. The inner city with the sculptural fountain of the „Three Graces"

5. The Lutheran church, a historical monument

6. The town hall