National and historical symbols of Hungary

In this section you can find the crests of almost 2400 settlements of Hungary with notes. Find the starting letter of the settlement in the list and click if you want to see it.

The Coat-of-Arms of the Town of Miskolc [¤]
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(The County of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén)

The town's present coat-of-arms was designed in 1909, based on the motifs borne on the former seals of the town.

The first seal of the town of Miskolc is to be found printed in yellow wax in a document dated 7 July 1389. Its legend is indecipherable, whereas the charge is a king's head adorned with a floretty crown. The identity of the king has given rise to much controversy. The name of St Stephen has come up because he was the patron saint of the church at Avas, while the crown with the fleurs-de-lys may as well refer to Lajos (Louis) the Great, the Anjou king. The next version of the seal is from 1433, again printed in yellow wax, and with a legend reading "Sigillum Civitas Miskolcz". On this the crowned head, already bearded, is presumably that of King Sigismund. Next to the head on the sinister a moon, on the dexter a six-pointed star are borne. Another version of this seal is also known, on which the engraving was made anew, presumably replacing the worn-out old one. In this period, instead of the crowned head, the seal bore a figure standing astride, then the full figure of St Stephen holding a sceptre and an orb. This seal was used until 1687, but then the figure of the king was replaced by a Haiduk warrior holding in one hand a bunch of grapes, in the other a stalk of wheat.

In 1909, when the town was granted with the status of municipal borough, the coat-of-arms was made by the combination of the former charges.

Shield erect, base curved to a point. In the field gules the bust of St Stephen habited gules, robed or, crowned with the Holy Crown and aureoled or. In his dexter hand the royal sceptre, in the sinister an orb surmounted by a patriarchal cross, all or. Across the shield top an open helmet at a slant ensigned with a crown, and crested with a Hungarian Haiduk warrior habited in a jacket azure laced or and girded with a sword hilted or, holding in his dexter hand five wheat ears, in the sinister a bunch of grapes, verdured, all or. The mantling is on the dexter azure and or, on the sinister gules and argent.

The shield placed on arabesques or is supported on the dexter by a lion or, langued, contourné, on the sinister by a griffin or, langued.

Miskolc, the seat of the county Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, is the region's industrial, commercial and cultural centre. With a population of 187,989 it is Hungary's third largest settlement.

The town is referred to by many as "the gateway to the Bükk Mountains", since it is located at the meeting point of the lowlands (the Great Hungarian Plain) and the Northern Mountain Range of Hungary, extending in an elongated line in the valley of the brook Szinva.

The varied natural conditions and resources made it possible for the town to start to develop rather early. The inhabitants of mediaeval Miskolc made their living mostly out of animal husbandry, viticulture and trade based on these activities. Later glass-making started in the forests of the Bükk Mountains, and in 1770 Henrik Fazola had the country's first iron furnace built.

During the past centuries the citizens had to fight hard through stormy periods, during which a considerable number of public buildings got destroyed by fires and floods.

Despite all this, Miskolc boasts numerous buildings of cultural historic value. The Calvinist church of Avas, together with its detached belfry, is the symbol of the town. It was also here that the country's first stone theatre was built, and by now the National Theatre of Miskolc has grown to be the most modern theatre complex in the whole of Central Europe. The site of one-time royal hunts, the Castle of Diósgyőr now witnesses bustling cultural life, where in the summertime various festivals (such as the famous Kaláka and Dixieland Festivals), as well as other open-air events come in quick succession. The Greek Orthodox Church and Museum houses rare ecclesiastical treasures, whereas the Ottó Herman Museum displays spectacular archeological, ethnographical and mineralogical collections.

Miskolc-Tapolca and Lillafüred, the gems of Miskolc, offer recreation to tourists wishing to have a rest. The unparalleled environment of the cave bath at Miskolc-Tapolca counts unique all over Europe.

Lillafüred is the town's other touristic attraction. The Palace Hotel on the shore of Lake Hámori is one of Hungary's most beautifully located romantic style buildings. With its caves, narrow-gauge forest railway and pleasant mountain climate, the area is a popular hiking spot for the citizens of Miskolc and for visitors coming from elsewhere.

Miskolc is also a town of students. Apart from secondary education offering various specialisations, the University of Miskolc is the largest provincial institution of higher education. The approximately 12,000 students study in depth law, science, economics and different fields of humanities.

Miskolc awaits visitors not only with its architectural monuments and works of art, but it also offers a wide variety of programs and excels with its traditional hospitality.


1. Diósgyőr Castle

2. Miskolc National Theatre

3. The Calvinist church at Avar

4. The Rákóczy Memorial House

5. The MAB Head Office

6. The Vigadó (Redoute)

7. Miskolc-Tapolca

8. Lillafüred

9. St Stephen's Cave

10. Orthodox church and museum