National and historical symbols of Hungary

In this section you can find the crests of almost 2400 settlements of Hungary with notes. Find the starting letter of the settlement in the list and click if you want to see it.

The Coat-of-Arms of the Town of Győr [¤]
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Győr

(The County of Győr-Moson-Sopron)

The coat-of-arms is a symmetrical plate shield parti per pale, coupé en pointe, pierced flanche-wise, the base urdée. In dexter field azure the first martyr St Stephen borne alaisé at a slant to the sinister, aureoled or, vested in a surplice argent and a damasked dalmatic gules, holding in the dexter hand a piece of stone referring to his lapidation, in the sinister hand palm leaves symbolising victory. Behind him at fess point a bar surmounted by a cross, all or.

Sinister field parti per fess. In upper field azure a fortified town gate masoned with ashlars argent, with the port open backgrounded azure and portcullis half-hoisted; on both sides a loophole sable. The port is surmounted by a battlement urdée pointed, and by an octagonal stone tower with two loopholes and low crenellation. In lower field gules three bars wavy argent, representing the rivers Danube, Rába and Rábca.

Across the top a five-pointed open crown verdured or, lined gules and adorned by gems, symbolising the free royal borough.

Full (or ornate) coat-of-arms:

The coat-of-arms is fully identical with the simple form, but it is complemented by an ornamental Baroque cartouche surmounted by the crown representing the free royal borough; the crown holds together the palm leaves supporting the coat-of-arms on both sides.

When the Hungarian state was being founded, King Stephen I assigned an important role to this place. At Győr he established a bishopric and had a cathedral built.

Parallel with the organization of the church, he established a system of royal comitats, whereby he made Győr a seat, headed by the chief castellan. The castle, presumably begun to be built at the end of the 10th century, used to stand on Káptalan Hill. It might have been a widely known place of importance all over the country, for the king, after putting down the pagan revolt led by Koppány, had one part of Chief Koppány's quartered body nailed onto the castle gate in 998. Due to its favourable location, the castle was an indispensable crossing point and later an important market of the trade along the Danube.

In the course of the rebuilding of the country after the devastating Mongol invasion, the law by King Béla IV ordering the revision and regulation of customs dues to be paid at Győr actually meant a return to normal trading conditions. The large-scale construction work in the decades following the Mongol invasion was a sign of remarkable development.

King István V freed the citizens of Győr from under the authority of the local landlord, and granted them priviliges, for the royal charter issued by him made provisions for the withdrawal of the citizens from under the control and jurisdiction of the comes (approx. Lord Lieutenant) and those of his deputy (comes curialis), and bestowed on them privileges similar to those possessed by the citizens of Fehérvár; furthermore, it made possible for the citizens to move over to the castle. As a result, the citizens of Győr could freely elect their judges and obtained the right for having fairs and collecting duties inside and outside the castle. In addition, they were exempted from having to pay duties on their own goods within the boundaries of the country. Apart from the granting independence, the rights secured by the royal charter not only developed an influential circle of local merchants but, by a more subtle division of labour, a group of craftsmen could also become more highly-skilled artisans.

In the life of the steadily developing town there came a break in the first years of the 15th century, for in 1403 the supporters of King Sigismund: the troops of Voivod Stibor and Palatine Garai took the castle of Győr together with several other towns. As a result of this, the parliament of 1405 ignored the rights of the town, because it was no longer considered as one directly subject to the Crown. King Mathias visited Győr several times.

Following the lost battle at Mohács in 1526, the changes in the country's political leadership were dramatically reflected in the life and development of Győr. When in 1529 the Turkish sultan Suleiman was advancing to besiege Vienna, Castellan Lamberg and the garrison of Győr fled, taking with themselves the military equipment and setting the castle and town on fire. The burnt-down town was given the name "Janik kala", meaning "Burnt castle" by the Turks.

The revival of trade at Győr was again interrupted in 1593 by the 15-year-war. Under the leadership of the aged Sinan Pasha a large-scale Turkish campaign was launched in order to occupy further territories. Defence was directed by the castellan Ferdinand Hardegg, who was left in the castle with an approximately 6,000-men-strong garrison, mainly consisting of Germans and Italians. On 29 September 1594, Hardegg gave up the castle to the Turks on condition that they were granted free withdrawal. The citizens of Győr fled. The Turkish occupation lasted three and a half years, during which the region was looted and terrorized.

The reoccupation of Győr became more and more urgent. The generals Pálffy and Schwarzenberg set out from Komárom with about 5,000 men to recapture the town with a brave surprise attack. They approached the castle walls on the night of 28 March and soon beat the drowsy and astounded Turks. The next day, on 29 March, Győr was liberated from under Turkish rule. The victory was then hotly discussed throughout Europe.

The citizens of the town restarted their fight against feudal bondage and, following a persistent struggle, by paying 17,000 florins as redemption and 5,000 as compensation, they managed to get rid of the supremacy of their landlord, the Chapter of Győr. Empress Maria Theresa raised the town to the rank of royal borough. Privileges included the free election of judges and senators by the citizens, the right to draw income from fairs and duties, and an exemption from having to pay duties on their own goods within the boundaries of the country. In addition to the bestowal of privileges, Győr also obtained a Baroque coat-of-arms.