National and historical symbols of Hungary

In this section you can find the crests of almost 2400 settlements of Hungary with notes. Find the starting letter of the settlement in the list and click if you want to see it.

The Coat-of-Arms of the Town of Érd [¤]
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Érd

(Pest County)

Shield erect and rectangular, bordured sable. Base pointed and party per fess. In chief or a tree vert, contoured sable. In the five-pointed crown of leaves an open three-pointed verdured crown is borne. Crown is decorated with three-petalled lilies each.

The tree and the crown are references to the Árpád-age name of the settlement Erdő/Erdű (Forest) and to its first inhabitants who used to be foresters. The three-pointed crown recalls the members of the Sárkány of Ákos-háza, Illésházy and Batthyány families who used to play an important role in the history of the settlement. The nine petals of the floral decoration signify those nine areas, out of which today’s Érd consists of. These are as follows: Ófalu, Újfalu, Újtelep, Tusculanum, Érdliget, Györgyliget, Postástelep, Vincellér and Parkváros. In base azure a twisted body of a dragon, gules is borne. Its tail resembles a loop and a Latin cross, or is borne in it. This charge is a reference to the fact that in the 15-16th centuries the members of the Sárkány (meaning: dragon) family were knights of the Order of the Dragon, founded by King Sigismund. Their task was to fight and defeat the evil within the country. The golden field symbolises wealth, ideals and harmony. The blue field is a symbol of the Danube River.

(The heraldic description of the settlement’s coat-of-arms can be found in the third paragraph of the decree of the local government No. 36/1997 (XII.1), which details the creation and the usage of the settlement’s flag and its coat-of-arms and enlists the occasions when the town buildings are to be decorated with flags.)

The town of Érd can be introduced as follows:

Transport

Érd is accessible on trunk roads No. 6 and 7 as well as on Motorway M7. From Budapest it takes about 20-25 minutes to get to Érd by car. There is a regular bus service from Budapest Etele Square to the capital’s southern suburbs, including Érd as well. By rail it is accessible via the Budapest Déli Pályaudvar (Southern Railway Sation)-Székesfehérvár and the Budapest Déli Pályaudvar (Southern Railway Sation)-Pusztaszabolcs lines.

Geographical location

Érd is located at a distance of 20 kilometres from Budapest, on the Érdi and Tétényi plateau, which stretches from the northern edge of the Mezőföld region to the southern range of the Buda Hills.

Geologically the Érd-Tétényi Plateau consists of middle Miocene and Sarmatian limestone, which has widely been used as construction material. The highest peak of the area is the 334-metre Iharos Hill in the northwestern part of the plateau.

Part of Érd-Parkváros, stretching toward Tárnok, the so-called Fundoklia Valley has been a protected conservation area since 1999. The valley is a3- kilometre long, 10-30- metre deep karstic ravine. There are about 25 protected plant species to be found in the area.

Ófalu is famous for its Érd-Tétényi Bay and and Beliczay island.Érd-Mezőföld can be found at the eastern edge of the Mezőföld region, on the bank of the Danube river. The so-called Kakukk-Hill is the highest point in the region, its height is 177 metres. Next to it one can see the 163-metre high Sánc Hill, which is picturesquely towering above the river. Part of it is the 1-kilometre long Érd High Bank of extraordinary natural beauty, which is built up of Pannon-age mud, and which features underwashed, almost vertical.mud walls

Population.

Based on figures of December 31, 2002, the number of inhabitants of Érd is 57,835. Concerning the ethnic composition of the settlement’s population, there are Gypsy, German, Slovak and Romanian inhabitants among the general population.

History

The earliest traces of human life at and near Érd have been found in the Fundoklia Valley. The 50-thousand-year-old paleolithic hunting grounds of the Neanderthal man were unearthed here by archeologists in the early 1960s. In addition to Vértesszőlős and Rudabánya it is the most significant one of the paleolithic finds in Central Europe. Archeologists consider it part of the ancient French Charentien culture.

On the Sánc Hill in Érd-Ófalu ruins of a Bronze Age earthwork were found. (From about 1600 B.C.)

In the Roman period Érd was situated between two military camps, which were linked by a military road. Parts of this military road have been found near Érd.

After the Hungarian Conquest of the 9th century several settlements came into being in the area of today’s Érd. The most decisive characteristic feature of the area of that time was the Torbágy forest, which was extremely rich in game. In the 13th and 14th centuries the inhabitants of the area mainly lived from agriculture. The first written mention of Érd’s name –in the form of Erdu- goes back to a land grant document of 1243.

The origin of the so-called Kutyavár of Érdliget goes back to the 15th century, when a mansion is said to have been built here by King Mathias and it served him as a hunting lodge.On the basis of archelogical finds the ruins of the building might go back to an earlier period. From the one-time Gothic building today only one single wall is seen on the top of a 10-metre-high mound.

By the Danube River there was a port as early as the Árpád Age, which played an important role int he period of the Turkish occupation of Hungary.

It was here, in the mansion of the Ambrus Sárkány, the Lord Chief Justice of the period, that between July 20-30, 1526 King Lajos II stayed before going to fight the Turks and being defeated by them at Mohács. The king’s favourite black battle horse collapsed and died in the yard of the mansion, and many people considered this event as an ill omen. In 1926, when the settlement celebrated the 400-year anniversary of the event, a memorial was erected at Érd to commemorate King Lajos II and it is adorned with the Roman statue of a lion.

In the period of the Turkish occupation Érd was part of the Turkish district of Buda. Since the settlement was located at the intersection of two military roads the Turks had a fortress built here, which was spacious enough to accomodate a Turkish garrison. The pallisaded fortress was enlarged in the 17th century and a mosque was also erected within its walls. The minaret of the mosque is one of the sights of present-day Érd and in addition to the minarets of Eger and Pécs this is the third surviving structure of this kind in the country.

The settlement was owned by the Sárkány family, then it went into the possession of the Illésházy nobiliary family. It was a family member, János Illésházy, who did a lot to develop Érd in the second half of the 18th century. In 1774 the church of St. Michael was enlarged with a tower and he added another storey to the building of the church parish. It was also him who commissioned the creation of the statues of St. John of Nepomuc and of St. Walburga and also had a Baroque cross erected in the churchyard.

Between 1828 and 1848 Érd was owned by the members of the Batthyány family The settlement was destroyed by the great flood of 1838 and Earl Fülöp Batthyány had a new settlement built after the flood and called it Újváros (Fülöpváros). In Ófalu a memorial plaque reminds visitors of the floods of 1776, 1838 and 1940-41.

The so-called Wimpffen mansion was built in Classicist style between 1820 and 1840. The building today houses the collections of the Hungarian Geographical Museum. The designing architect of this building is not known, supposedly it is a work by József Hild. The building is located by the Budapest-Székesfehérvár road and it consists of a main building and two side wings. The centrally located building was a coach station and the two side wings used to serve as horse stables.

In 1848 the mansion and the estate went into the possession of the Sina baronial family of bankers of Greek origin. The members of this family used to play an important role in the Reform Age history of Hungary. György Sina donated a considerable sum of money to the construction of the Chain Bridge in Budapest. After 1869 the Sárkány mansion of Ákosháza was rebuilt in Neo Renaissance style by Simon Sina. There are countless legends about the luxurious furiture in it and the exuberant lifestyle of the mansion’s dwellers.

It was in 1876 that through marriage the estate and the mansion went into the possession of the Wimpffen family. The members of the Károlyi family of counts purchased part of the estate and the mansion in 1911. Somewhat later, in 1920, the building was owned by the Christ Society and later by an order of nuns. In 1940 a KALOT folk college operated within the walls of the building. After the second world war the building was quickly deteriorating and in 1971 it was pulled down. Today only its cellars and one terrace-like wall remind us of its former grandeur.

After the first world war from 1926 onward the Károlyi estate was distributed among the peasants which process led to the rapid growth of the number of the inhabitants of Érd. It is also a popular dwelling place for those who work in the capital during the day. In the summer it serves as a resort for the inhabitants of Budapest.

In January 1945 approximately 3,000 local people were transported to the Soviet Union to do forced labour there. In the town centre there is a monument to commemorate this event.

After the second world war Érd was rapidly growing and in 1979 the settlement was raised to the rank of town.

Considering the number of Érd’s inhabitants the town received only modest sums from the central and the county budgets and it took some time and considerable efforts to develop the local infrastructure as well. This process speeded up only after the changing of the political system in Hungary.

Today Érd is becoming increasingly popular with people who are tired of their hectic life in Budapest and also with hose who come to settle down here hoping to find employment in the capital.

Photos:

01. Érd

02. Pest County

03. Wimpffen Mansion (Hungarian Geographical Museum)

04. Wimpffen Mansion (Coach Station)

05. Memorial to King Lajos II

06. Minaret

07. St. Michael Church

08. The Statue of St. Walburga

09. Memorial to Victims of Forced Labour

10. Kutyavár

11. Fundoklia Valley

12. Flood Memorial