National and historical symbols of Hungary

In this section you can find the crests of almost 2400 settlements of Hungary with notes. Find the starting letter of the settlement in the list and click if you want to see it.

The Coat of Arms of the Village of Egyházaskozár [¤]
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(Baranya County)

Houssar-type shield erect and azure and lined or; its base is curved to a point.

From the mound in the centre of the base an anchor argent is issuing and it is topped by an Egyptian cross. On both sides anchor is flanked by a lion or, its tail bifourchée. In the middle of the chief a six-pointed star argent is borne encouped. Shield is adorned by a five-pointed crown or, lined purpure.

Egyházaskozár’s coat of arms can be considered authentic and precise from a heraldic point of view since it is characterised by the unity of its symbols, the harmony of all its motives as well as the preservation of heraldic traditions.

Egyházaskozár was the first settlement in Baranya County which was raised to the rank of market town in 1778 (by the name Ráckozár). No coat of arms or banner survived from that period but several seal prints have come down to us from the late 18th century. The seal prints as well as the instructions of heraldic sources served as bases for reconstructing Egyházaskozár’s coat of arms.

The system of symbols in the settlement’s emblem is a true depiction of the historical traditions of the village.

The shape of the shield is a reference to the so-called ’battle of Kozár’, also immortalised by Chronicler Sebestyén Tinódi. From among the heraldic charges the lions are references to the settlement’s heroic past, to its central role within the area, as well as to the members of the Esterházy family, who owned and settled in the deserted village after the expulsion of the Turks. The anchor is to symbolise the new settlers, who arrived from Germany on water. It is also a reference to the fact that they were able to cast an anchor in this undulating area called Hegyhát. The crown symbolises the privileged status of the settlement, which used to function as the number one market town of the Hegyhát (Mecsekhát) region.

The village of Egyházaskozás is located in the north-northeastern part of Baranya County. Its distance from the county seat is about 50 kilometres and it lies at a distance of about 10 kilometres from the seat of Tolna County. From the east Egyházaskozár borders on Szárász, from the north on Nagyhajmás, from the west on Bikal and from the south on Hegyhátmaróc and Tófű. The village is accessible via public roads of reasonable quality from three directions. From the south it is accessible from the direction of Komló, from the direction of Szászvár via Tófű and from the direction of Mágocs. In the west it is accessible via Bikal. This roads leads through Egyházaskozár and then goes on toward Szárász and eventually it leaves Baranya County in the vicinity of that village. The bus service is reasonably well -organised.

In a geographical sense Egyházaskozár is part of the Hegyhát region of Baranya. It is a moderately wet hilly area, winters are usually mild in this region. The settlement’s microclimate is moderately warm and it is dominated by oceanic influences. The annual average temperature is about 10-10.5 degrees C. The climatic features of the area are favourable for agriculture. The valleys are lined by 200-300-metre long slopes. The southern slopes are sunny and precipitation dries up easily and the underground water supply is also ideal for agricultural activities. The village is divided into two parts by the Hábi brook.

Archeologists have found remains of pottery in Egyházaskozár, which go back to the people of the so called Transdanubian linear patterned pottery of the middle and the early period of the New Stone Age. Three graves have also been excavated in the vicinity which go back to the age of the Romans. On the bank of the Vásárosdombó-Bikal brook twelve Roman graves got destroyed in 1968 when the dams were constructed.

The posterior constituent of the settlement’s name, the word Kozár is a reminder of a group of the peoples of the period of the Hungarian conquest, who called themselves Kazárs and joined the conquering Hungarian tribes. The anterior constituent of the settlement’s name, the word ’Egyházas’means that contrary to the neighbouring villages this setlement had a church of its own, that is it was a village of extraordinary significance. Ráckozár was another version of the settlement’s name. The anterior constituent ’rác’ is a reference to the one-time Serbian population of the settlement.

In the Middle Ages Egyházaskozár had a parish church of its own. Before the Turkish conquest the settlement of pure Hungarian inhabitants was part of the village of Anyavár of Tolna County. In March 1542 Kászon, Turkish governor of Mohács, later of Pécs, sent an army led by Agha Ali to capture the castle of Döbrököz. Castellan Imre Werbőczi, learning about the intention of the Turks marched to Szászvár with his 225-member cavalry and 200 infantrymen, but he failed to meet the Turks there, so he decided to return to his castle to Döbrököz. On his way back he met Murád’s Turkish soldiers at Kozár who were having rest on that spot. The Turks were caught by surprise and the Hungarians were able to set about 200 Hungarian prisoners of war free as well. This event is called the ’battle of Kozár’ in history.

Around 1680, during the last years of the Turkish Conquest the village got depopulated. It is not known whether the original Hungarian population or the newly arrived Serbian inhabitants were the last people to leave the village. It was around 1696 that Egyházaskozár was resettled by newly arriving Serbian families. By the end of Rákóczi’s war of independence it became deserted once again and eventually Serbian settlers arrived in 1720 and around 1750 the population of the village was mostly Serbs. By religious affiliation they represented Greek orthodoxy and in the late 18th century they erected an extremely decorative church for the Orthodox community, which dominated the village until 1930, when eventually it was pulled down. In the 19th century the Serbian population of the village was pushed into the background by the new settlers and they began to leave the settlement. It was the end of the 19th century when the last Serbian family left Egyházaskozár. From 1752-1768 Lutheran German settlers began to arrive in increasing numbers and by the end of the last century their number reached 1400. Around 1760 and at the beginning of the 20th century some Catholic Slavs also appeared in the village, but their number did not increase considerably. In the 18th century Hungarians did not live in the village on a permanent basis yet; during the 19th century the number of the settlement’s Hungarian inhabitants was already steady, but low.

In 1772 the village was raised to the rank of market town and the settlement was able to keep this privilege until as late as the second half of the 19th century.

The Lutheran church of Egyházaskozár was built from 1783-1786 in cable-patterned Baroque style. In 1800 the church burnt down and it was then rebuilt in 1814, when an organ was also added to the church interior. The organ of the village church is of such extraordinary quality that organ concerts can be held in it even today. The entrance to the church, its furnishings, the painted gallery, the altar, its pulpit and the benches are all from the late 18th century. The Lutheran congregation of the village is still very active and their religious services are held in German.

The house at 38 Rác köz is one of the listed buildings in the village. Originally it represented Baroque style, but later on it was rebuilt. The village has a Roman Catholic chapel as well and it was consecrated to honour King St. Stephen. The Csángó (Transylvanian) inhabitants of Egyházaskozár also have a house of prayer of their own.

Folk legend has it that in the past the congregation of Kozár was the largest in the entire area and it included the religious communities of several other settlements. It is believed that in that period the village used to be owned by a noblewoman who was called Kozera and the anterior constituent of the one-time name of the settlement, the word ’rác’ used to refer to the Serbian (Rác) inhabitants of the village. The village got settled in when the Serbian patriarch, called Csarnovits ruled, who invited Serbs from southern Serbia to come and settle down in this village. Later German settlers arrived from the provinces of Hessen and Württemberg. According to contemporary legends, when the area was occupied by the Serbians, a woman by the name Kóza owned the settlement. The German street of the village is the Tinódi street; the name is a reference to the fact that chronicler Sebestyén Lantos Tinódi recorded the events of the battle of Kozár in 1542. His rendering of the story goes as follows: ’the battle at Kozár fought between Imreh Werbőczi and the fierce troops of Kászon’.

At a place called Vaskapu (Iron Gate) a tomb can be found. It is the burial place of two Serbian popes of the Orthodox church who died in the village around 1700. One part of the village is called Králevic and it lies in the vicinity of the village of Szárász. It is believed that a fearless Serbian military leader, Márkó Králevicz used to live in this area as well.