National and historical symbols of Hungary

In this section you can find the crests of almost 2400 settlements of Hungary with notes. Find the starting letter of the settlement in the list and click if you want to see it.

The Coat-of-Arms of the Town of Debrecen [¤]
Click to zoom

Debrecen

(The County of Hajdú-Bihar)

"It is an azure military shield standing erect, with a three-crested green mound in its lower part. In the middle, there is a palm tree with green leaves. In front of the tree, a white lamb stands with three legs on two open books, holding a golden cross with its fourth (fore right) leg. Hanging from the cross, there is a crimson banner embroidered with a white Greek cross. The lamb faces the right side of the shield. On the top of the shield there is a helmet with a crown. A phoenix, with spread wings and open beak, wearing a green ivy wreath around its neck, is burnt by the flames springing up from the crown. Fringes issue from the top of the helmet surrounding the shield from both sides. The colours are red and white on one side, and blue and gold on the other. The phoenix turns its head towards the shining sun."

The name of Debrecen occurs for the first time in 1235 in the book of legal procedures known as the Regestrum of Várad.

The royal gifts of deed give proof of the well-developed market production of the town which also possessed extensive lands. In 1361 King Louis I granted the town the right to free election of judges and priests. In 1405 King Sigismund gave Debrecen jurisdiction which only the royal town of Buda had benefited from before. In 1477 the town was given the right to halt merchants by King Matthias, while in 1693 it was declared a free royal town by King Leopold I.

During the 16-17th centuries Debrecen gradually became the industrial and trading centre of the Tiszántúl region. It also became a stronghold of Reformation. It was the capital of Hungary for two times: first in 1849, when it played the role of "guardian town of freedom", and then in 1944, when the post-war Provisional National Assembly held its meetings here. In 1876 Debrecen became the seat of the newly formed Hajdú county, while from 1950 on it is the capital of Hajdú-Bihar county.

The ancient seal of the town dates back to 1563. Its lamb holding the banner presumably symbolises Jesus Christ.

In 1600 Rudolf, king of Hungary, added the two open books and the phoenix reviving from its own ashes to the ancient coat-of-arms - the first symbolises the source of true faith and wisdom, while the latter is the symbol of the town capable of renewal.

The palm tree and the shining sun were added to the coat-of-arms by King Leopold I in the same charter in which he granted Debrecen the free royal status. The palm symbolises the city which gains strength from the burdens, while the sun represents the divine providence guarding the town.

The colours of Debrecen are blue and yellow. The blue is the colour of the background of the shield, whereas the yellow (gold) comes from the flagstaff, the aureole around the lamb's head, the helmet, the crown, and the fringe beside the shield.

In 1989 the municipality of Debrecen - in the spirit of the historical heritage - adopted the coat-of-arms described above (based on the royal charter issued on 11 April, 1693).

Photos:

1. Cathedral with fountain

2. Kossuth Square

3. Town Hall

4. University of Debrecen

5. Déri Museum

6. Csokonai Theatre

7. Aquaticum mediterran aquapark

E-mail: tege@ph.debrecen.hu